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Individual and Collective Reasoning

Research Objectives

The Individual and Collective Reasoning Group (ICR) is an interdisciplinary research team at the University of Luxembourg which is driven by the insight that intelligent systems (like humans) are characterized not only by their individual reasoning capacity, but also by their social interaction potential. Its overarching goal is to develop and investigate comprehensive formal models and computational realizations of individual and collective reasoning and rationality.

ICR is anchored in the Lab for Intelligent and Adaptive Systems (ILIAS) of the Computer Science and Communications unit (CSC), and involved in the Interdisciplinary Centre for Security, Reliability and Trust (SnT). The group, which is led by Leon van der Torre, currently counts more than 15 researchers and is strongly engaged in international cooperation.

Our research areas are normative multi-agent systems, autonomous cognitive agents, computational social choice, and the foundations of logic-based knowledge representation and reasoning.

Ongoing Research Projects

AuReLeE - Automated Reasoning with Legal Entities

Time frame: Dec. 1, 2020 - Nov. 30, 2022
Funding sources: FNR - CORE - Core Junior
Participants: STEEN, Alexander (Principal Investigator)


The process of compliance checking involves the review and assessment of implemented processes and artefacts with respect to conformance towards normative specifications, e.g., addressing aspects of information security or privacy. Compliance checks may be conducted because of self-imposed quality and security policies, but might also be necessary activities required by …

AuReLeE - Automated Reasoning with Legal Entities (AuReLeE)

Time frame: March 1, 2021 - Feb. 1, 2023
Funding sources: FNR - CORE - Core Junior
Participants: STEEN, Alexander (Principal Investigator), FUENMAYOR PELAEZ, David (Research and Development Specialist)


The goal of the project Automated Reasoning with Legal Entities (AuReLeE) is to provide effective and general means for the automation of normative reasoning processes based on legal knowledge bases. To this end, the project will design and implement a dedicated system that combines efficient decision procedures with a flexible …

DELIGHT - Deontic Logic for Epistemic Rights

Time frame: March 1, 2021 - Feb. 29, 2024
Funding sources: FNR - OPEN
Participants: VAN DER TORRE, Leon (Principal Investigator)


Practical and social reasoning is used in the foundations of explainable Artificial Intelligence for the design and engineering of legal and ethical reasoners, and the control and governance of intelligent autonomous systems. DELIGHT investigates deontic logics reasoning about epistemic rights such as the right to know, the freedom of thought …

EXPECTATION - Personalized Explainable Artificial Intelligence for decentralized agents with heterogeneous knowledge

Time frame: Jan. 1, 2021 - Dec. 31, 2023
Funding sources: FNR - INTER
Participants: VAN DER TORRE, Leon (Principal Investigator)


Explainable AI (XAI) has emerged in recent years as a set of techniques and methodologies aiming at explaining machine learning (ML) models, and enabling humans to understand, trust, and manipulate the outcomes produced by artificial intelligent entities effectively. Although these initiatives have advanced over the state of the art, several …

icomplai - Automated GDPR compliance checking of documents and processes

Time frame: Jan. 1, 2021 - Dec. 31, 2022
Participants: LIBAL, Tomer (Principal Investigator)


Since the introduction of the GDPR in 2018, privacy law compliance checking has gained much importance, bothfinancially and ethically. Despite that, a relatively small number of software exists, which can help in this process.Moreover, the current software solutions suffer from several problems, such as inexplainability andnontransparency, which …

AI & Art Pavilion

Time frame: June 1, 2020 - Dec. 31, 2022
Funding sources: UL, Esch2022
Participants: VAN DER TORRE, Leon (Principal Investigator), NAJJAR, Amro (Researcher), KARPATI, Daniel (Project Coordinator)

In Press






    Book Chapter

  • Argumentation as Exogenous Coordination, van der Torre Leon, Rienstra Tjitze, Gabbay Dov M.. In: It's All About Coordination, Springer.
  • From Words to Images Through Legal Visualization, Rossi Arianna, Palmirani Monica, Pagallo Ugo (Editor), Palmirani Monica (Editor), Casanovas Pompeu (Editor), Sartor Giovanni (Editor), Villata Serena (Editor). In: AI Approaches to the Complexity of Legal Systems: AICOL International Workshops 2015–2017: AICOL-VI@ JURIX 2015, AICOL-VII@ EKAW 2016, AICOL-VIII@ JURIX 2016, AICOL-IX@ ICAIL 2017, and AICOL-X@ JURIX 2017, Revised Selected Papers, Springer Cham.






    Book Chapter

  • Agent Programming Languages Requirements for Programming Autonomous Robots, Ziafati Pouyan, Dastani Mehdi, Meyer John-Jules, van der Torre Leon, Dastani Mehdi (Editor), Hübner Jomif (Editor), Logan Brian (Editor). In: Programming Multi-Agent Systems, Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
  • A propositional typicality logic for extending rational consequence, Booth Richard, Meyer Thomas, Varzinczak Ivan. In: Trends in Belief Revision and Argumentation Dynamics, College Publications.
  • Input/output logic, Parent Xavier, van der Torre Leon, van der Torre Leon (Editor), Gabbay Dov M. (Editor), Horty Jeff (Editor), van der Meyden Ron (Editor). In: Handbook of Deontic Logic, College Publications.
  • Normative Reasoning and Consequence, Broersen Jan, Cranefield Stephen, Elrakaiby Yehia, Gabbay Dov M., Grossi Davide, Lorini Emiliano, Parent Xavier, van der Torre Leon, Tummolini Luca, Turrini Paolo, Schwarzentruber Fran. In: Normative Multi-Agent Systems, Springer Netherlands.