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Bologna Accords

On 19 June 1999, the ministers of education of 29 European countries signed the Bologna Accords. Since 2005 the University of Luxembourg has offered BMD qualification schemes (Bachelor/Master/Doctorate) in accordance with the European Union.

What is the aim of these accords?

  • Difficulties regarding the recognition of qualifications and rigid national systems hampered student and staff mobility.
  • Higher education in Europa had many deficits: high drop-out rates, too long periods of study, low employability.
  • European universities were not very attractive for non-European students.


  • Creating a European higher education space
  • Harmonising higher education systems by offering the same diplomas throughout Europe
  • Increasing international student mobility by simplifying transfers from one university to another, from one country to another
  • Encouraging cooperation between institutions, countries and national systems regarding quality assurance
  • Increasing the competitiveness of European higher education and its attractiveness on a global scale
  • Access to an international job market.


  • Higher education systems based on three degrees irrespective of local qualification names: Baccalaureate (or Licence or Bachelor), Master, Doctorate
  • Adoption of a clear and easy-to-compare diploma system accompanied by Diploma Supplements (DS). (The Diploma Supplement is an appendix providing detailed explanations on the qualification, the skills acquired by the student, etc. It is a method to explain and upgrade the contents of the student’s training.)
  • Implementation of the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) 
  • Organisation in semesters and units of learning
  • Development of competences and transversal skills (languages, computer skills, communication techniques…)


(Source: http://www.mcesr.public.lu/enssup/dossiers/bologne/processus_bologne.pdf)